F&V is a full-service consulting engineering, construction, and operations firm with proven experience in providing PFAS services. With a team of diverse professionals, including geologists, scientists, and engineers, we are unique in providing a full suite of PFAS services, from initial planning and sampling, to construction and operation of remediation/treatment facilities.
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made chemicals that have been used world-wide in manufacturing, firefighting, and thousands of common consumer products. PFAS are persistent in the environment and have been connected to a variety of health and environmental issues. Sampling for PFAS involves specialized sampling protocols to avoid cross-contamination.
Over the past few years, F&V has sampled hundreds of drinking water, wastewater, soil, leachate, groundwater, foam, and surface water samples for PFAS. We have also designed PFAS treatment systems for municipal water supplies, industrial wastewater, and residential water wells.
Public Water Supply Wells
In 2018, the state of Michigan sampled every public water supply in the state for PFAS. The majority of public water supply wells did not detect PFAS. However, many public water supply managers, especially those who initially detected PFAS, have collected additional samples to confirm the results and to monitor concentration trends over time. F&V is working with public water supplies to address PFAS concerns, develop public information systems, and coordinate sampling and laboratory analysis. We have also designed treatment systems and completed studies to locate new well locations.
Wastewater Treatment Plants
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) receive water contaminated with PFAS from industrial, commercial, and residential sources. Unfortunately, conventional WWTP treatment does not effectively remove PFAS, and PFAS is then discharged to rivers, lakes, and groundwater. In some scenarios, WWTP process increases the concentration of certain PFAS. WWTP also produce sludge and biosolids, which often are contaminated with PFAS. F&V assists WWTP to assess PFAS. Often this involves assessing PFAS concentrations at various stages of the treatment process, such as influent discharge and biosolids. F&V also works with WWTP plant owners and operators to eliminate or control incoming PFAS and to comply with NPDES permits. F&V provides guidance for industrial and commercial entities who send PFAS impacted water to WWTP to reduce their PFAS concentrations, including installing PFAS treatment systems.
Landfills are one of the final resting places for the many consumer products and industrial by-products that contain PFAS. F&V has assisted landfill owners in assessing how to address PFAS concerns. Typically, this involves sampling leachate streams and groundwater for PFAS analysis. In addition, F&V is designing leachate treatment systems to remove PFAS from leachate at multiple landfills.
Environmental Due Diligence
Because PFAS is used extensively, it is present in the environment at many commercial and industrial locations. F&V considers PFAS when assisting clients in property transactions as part of their environmental due diligence evaluation of a property. F&V’s Phase I Environmental Site Assessments (ESAs) identify potential PFAS uses or sources at the site. If documentation reviewed during the Phase I ESA indicates the suspected presence of PFAS, Phase II soil and groundwater sampling should be conducted to determine if PFAS in present at the site. In Michigan, a Baseline Environmental Assessment (BEA) may be submitted to limit the liability of a new property owner for any existing contamination. F&V can also assist in evaluating a plan to manage risks and quantify potential remediation costs as part of the property acquisition decision process.
Certain manufacturing facilities such as textile and leather processors, paper mills, metal finishers, and plating facilities often have a history of using PFAS compounds. Those that have used PFAS may have released PFAS into soil, water, or air via wastewater discharge, air discharge, disposal operations, spills, etc. F&V has experience in assessing PFAS impacts in soil and groundwater at manufacturing sites.
Aqueous Film Forming Foam
Aqueous Film Forming Foams (AFFF) contain PFAS and are used by the U.S. military, civilian airports and industrial facilities to extinguish hydrocarbon fires and for training exercises. AFFF can contaminate soil, groundwater, and surface water with PFAS. F&V provides assistance to agencies to assess PFAS contamination from AFFF.
With every new PFAS release discovered, nearby residents want to know if their drinking water well is contaminated. Although the MDEQ or a responsible party may offer to sample residents drinking water, residents throughout Michigan have chosen F&V to sample their wells. We also advise well owners of their options if PFAS is detected in their water.
Information on PFAS is available at:
Let the experts at F&V help you assess your options.